Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️
Jun 01, 2021
Quote of the week: .'' True science teaches, above all, to doubt and to be ignorant. ” — Prof. Miguel de Unamuno, Spaniard philosopher, 1864 - 1936.
From The Editor's Corner
COMMUTATION IN CONCRETE MANUFACTURING AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR.
Challenges for our times
Last November, the magazine Chemical and Engineering News -C&En - published a particular number devoted to the concrete’s carbon footprint. One of the included papers, entitled “Alternative materials could shrink concrete’s giant carbon footprint,” and authored by Mitch Jacoby, was devoted to underline the central aspects of a report by the International Energy Agency concerning the current and projected concrete sector characteristics. Two subjects of current concern. Firstly, the critique of harmful effects of concrete production on the energy consumption (2-3% of the global energy produced) and Green Gashouse Emissions - GGE, about 800 kg of CO₂ for every ton of cement produced, which are almost one-tenth of the global ones. On the other hand, the importance of concrete, a synthetic rock, supporting humankind’s development more than one century ago. In a similar approach as the mentioned before for metallic materials, figures about concrete are strong. For example, in 1900, the in-use stock of concrete worldwide was 2.31 gigatons, and the yearly consumption was 0.05 gigatons, equivalent to 6.6% of the total engineering materials. Meanwhile, such figures in 2000 moved to 3.83 gigatons and 42.02% gigatons, respectively, and in 2014 were 7.57 gigatons and 48.31%. Consequently, per capita consumption is rising exponentially, and the expected global growth by 2050 is around 25 - 50%. In some way, we live in a world of concrete, a culture of concrete. Both, construction of the new infrastructure and updating of the old one are done with concrete. Most of this concrete is reinforced with steel, and one of the corrosion specialties is corrosion in concrete. Mostly concrete is exposed to the atmosphere. As a result, a particular form of atmospheric corrosion is established where the material of interest is covered by a layer of concrete, generating some specific environmental conditions. The future of concrete can easily be assumed to be directly related to the future of one of the more intensive corrosion demanding areas of specialization, which is corrosion science and engineering of reinforced concrete.
Innovations respond to specific infrastructure needs and collateral constraints, particularly economic, societal and environmental concerns. Here, we can mention emerging technologies about construction procedures, where additive manufacturing appears as a tremendous disruption. Beyond construction modes, enormous efforts have been made to look for less pollutant and more sustainable Portland cement and concrete types. There have been changes to the cement-making process. Improving energy efficiency and new production practices is one of the first steps because less fuel consumption means lower CO₂ emissions. Also, strategies concerning carbon capture, usage, and storage - CCUS, are being tried, including, for instance, trapping of gases by solid sorbents or even the sequestering by the concrete itself. Another area of exploration included formulations, the search for alternative raw materials for a partial or complete replacement of at least one of its components, Ordinary Portaland Cement - OPC. Goals include substituting raw materials and new concrete with better properties, including higher durability. One of the tested sources of new raw materials considers waste from several processes, such as fly ash from coal combustion. However, severe limitations about the furnishing and standardization of the fly ash are even bigger questions to solve. Other examples, also with furnishing limitations, are blast-furnace slag, currently used in some special commercialized cement, and silica fumes from the electric arc furnace silica or ferrosilicon alloys production. Of course, other proposals for by-products and waste from various sources, including household waste, have been evaluated in the lab. Furthermore, significant changes in formulation, moving from the OPC cement, have been considered. For example, a cement of common clay is calcinated at 800 °C, far from 1450 °C for OPC manufacturing. Another alternative is the calcium sulfoaluminate cement, which emits less than half of CO₂ than the OPC. Also, geopolymers, carbon-negative cement, and others. In any way, in addition to a truly scientific understanding of physical-chemical cement and concrete formation, the reformulation implies deep considerations about issues concerning the alternative raw materials like their nature, availability, cost-effectiveness, compatibility with current equipment and practices, and physical, mechanical, and corrosion resistance properties.
Challenges for Corrosionists
This latter point is directly connected with the new role of Corrosionists. Traditionally, a driving force of the Corrosionists’ function is the cost of corrosion. Talking about the cost of the phenomena in reinforced concrete is possible to mention a recent example concerning the decision by the Australian government to fund the remediation of 201 bridges, with a cost of USD$167 million. This is “one of the sides of the coins,” concerning maintenance, conservation, and recovery of old reinforced concrete structures. Here, it is necessary to consider the massive number of structures built in the 1950s - 1980s, mainly in the developed countries, structures over 40 years old. A second aspect has to do with the development and expansion of new infrastructure. How should corrosionists act in both cases to meet today's challenges? According to our colleague Ueli M. Angst from the Institute for Building Materials at the ETH Zurich, Switzerland, these two situations are related to two different challenges: Move away from a conservative decision-making maintenance and old structures recovery based on experience to an innovative knowledge-based strategic work. And, in the second place, to be able to predict the long-term behavior of the new structures reliably. In other words, Prof. Angst is asking for more scientific and less empirical considerations and decisions by Corrosionists today. In the end, the people in charge of the protection of reinforced concrete infrastructure must be following the pace and actively taking part in the innovation happening in the cement and concrete sectors, from the design stage until the construction processes, including all the intermediate phases.
Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!
Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.
Materials Biz News
In many cases, slurry pumps operate continuously in hostile environments. This causes many failures, and the bearings are continually subjected to vibration and corrosive chemicals that contaminate bearings and seals. The risk of over or under greasing also causes excessive heat build-up and premature bearing failure. Successfully extending the working life of a slurry pump requires a three-pronged approach that addresses the following:
● Effective monitoring
● The proper mechanical packing, seals, and lubrication
● Protecting the internal workings of the pump
US funding supports materials research for molten salt environments.
In the Phase I project, QuesTek used its Integrated Computational Materials Engineering technology to design new molybdenum alloy components that combine improved cold spray processability with corrosion resistance. High molten salt and stable surface bonding to the base material. Dr. Pin Lu, QuesTek Materials Design Engineer and Project Principal Investigator said the cold spray is one of the most cost-effective and economical coating technologies for extending world nuclear reactors’ lives. QuesTek is working with Solvus Global, an expert in advanced cold injection process optimization.
Inhibiting corrosion in vessels containing saltwater or brine
Cortec has launched a floating layer of M-645 to suppress corrosion in containers containing saltwater or brine. This floating layer floats on the water surface and forms a self-healing protective film on neighboring metals. The film expels chloride-containing water from the surface of the vessel. The M-645 is ideal for ballasts that are often emptied and replenished. Because M-645 floats on the water’s surface, the non-aqueous formula does not contaminate the ballast water, allowing for common discharge procedures. This new product provides corrosion protection for a wide range of saltwater/saline applications.
Position: Senior Corrosion Protection Technician
Seeker: AusNet services
Location: Victoria, Australia
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Experience: NACE and ACA qualification also experience in ICCP (impressed current cathodic protection), monitoring and maintenance, and coating defect surveys fault finding.
● Skills: Ability to work autonomously and schedule work according to changing business needs, provide excellent customer service, and build strong relationships with clients and peers.
Job description: AusNet seeks a senior Corrosion protection technician willing to provide corrosion protection technical expertise in maintaining and managing the various corrosion protection systems under the group’s control. Also, the candidate will provide routine maintenance, fault rectification, data validation-collection services, and technical advice on the CP systems to AusNet Services and external customers.
Position: Piping Engineer
Location: Abu Dhabi, UAE
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering from an accredited university.
● Experience: You must have 7-10 years of piping engineering and design experience in the oil and gas industry for offshore and onshore projects. Also, design experience shall include piping materials, piping stress, pipe supports, offshore & onshore plant equipment layouts, and detailed piping design.
● Skills: Knowledge of using 3D Review software and 2D (AutoCAD, Micro-Station, etc.), 3D (PDS, PDMS, SP3D, E3D, etc.), and CAESAR II software.
Job description: Worley is seeking a piping engineer willing to Perform piping engineering services such as:
● Identify and report changes to project scope.
● Assist with the preparation of proposals, estimates, budgets, and schedules.
● Assist in the procurement, construction, and commissioning activities. For example, write requisitions, conduct technical bid evaluations, and write purchase orders.
● Contribute to appropriate studies, analyses, and recommend actions.
● Assist with the preparation of detailed designs and drawings, specifications, data, calculations, and reports.
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: Ph.D. students at MPRR group, department MSE, TU Delft
Two research projects have been recently awarded, co-financed by Tata Steel (IJmuiden) and the Dutch government, and supported by the Materials innovation institute (M2i). These positions are available immediately; contract duration: 4-year.
Project CHIRON: The project goals are to understand the effects of increased hydrogen levels on the in-flight melting and pre-reduction of the fine iron ores in the HIsarna furnace and to evaluate the role of hydrogen on microstructure and mineralogy evolution of different ore types.
Project Max-SCORE: The project goals are set to understand the dynamic melting and refining behavior of scrap in complex shapes and sizes together with BF and HIsarna hot metal; to develop a DEM-CFD based scrap melting and refining model for the converter process, and to validate with plant data and provide the theoretical and practical guidance to reach the above goals.
Networking & Knowledge Exchange
Zagreb Corrosion Summer School 2021. Virtual
Corrosion Summer School is intended for both Ph.D. students and practitioners from the industry who want to take a deep look at corrosion and anti-corrosion measurements. On each day, presenters will show theoretical background and practical experiences as well on selected corrosion issues. Each separated subject will be shared, including academia and industry focus.
Date: June 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th, and July 7th, 2021.
Time: From 9:00 to 15:30 each day, CEST (GMT + 2).
SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers) International offers a two-day corrosion conference of learning and networking. This conference brings together international scientists, researchers, and academics to exchange knowledge, share best practices and research results on recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges encountered within the oilfield corrosion community, connect with peers and meet engineers facing similar challenges.
Dates: Wednesday and Thursday, Jun 16th - 17th, 2021.
Time: From 12:30 to 18:00 each day, BST (GMT + 1).
A conference supported by the EuropeanMaterials Research society and chaired by Dr. Steffen Neumeier from the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany. According to the organizers, the objective of CREEP 2021 is to provide an opportunity for scientists and engineers to come together, share experience and knowledge to discuss the recent progress concerning creep mechanisms and modeling, and explore advanced experimental testing methods, materials, and applications. The conference consists of invited lectures and contributed oral as well as poster presentations.
Date: Wednesday to Friday, June 14th - 16th, 2021.
Time: Daylight time CEST (GMT + 2).