Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️
July 06, 2021
Quote of the week: ''The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” — Lao Tzu, ancient Chinese philosopher, and writer.
From The Editor's Corner
Modeling, simulation, and prediction pay
A permanent challenge
Prediction of material behavior has always been a severe problem for Corrosionists. It has been an issue of business and a concern about safety, health, aesthetics, and other reasons concerning corrosion prevention and protection. The heuristic method of engineering lets us use empirical knowledge to solve these types of challenges, which was the way initially. However, more precise estimates, with the least possible uncertainty, have always been needed, and predicting corrosion behavior has become increasingly scientific. Simulation by physical modeling has been a helpful tool for corrosion studies. Most of the works developed in the lab deal with the simulation of authentic situations but under controlled conditions. This means that some known variables are fixed while the remainders are systematically tracked (usually, there are unknown, uncontrolled variables, too). Experimental simulation is based on the scientific method, and the results are just an approach to the actual field situation. Nonetheless, simulation is a simplification, and real cases are complex, as the world is. Theoretical modeling has been a complementary tool, trying to solve limitations as accurate control of variables and cost and time-consumption requirements in simulation experiments. Modeling is a mathematical approach to any situation, and this is one of its more substantial facts. Quality of modeling depends on the initially given information, almost always empirical, with all the risks that such information carries and the degree of adjustment of the mathematical tool to the fact under consideration.
The quality of information available to any modeling tool has improved as the science and technology of corrosion have evolved. A better understanding of each situation, the materials and environments involved, and the way they interact are essential for better information supporting modeling and, consequently, much better results and predictions. Also, factors like the nature of the corrosion products are relevant as part of the information for modeling corrosion and anticorrosion situations.
In the beginning, mathematical equations were the best way to predict corrosion behavior, either by interpolation among known situations or extrapolating beyond these. Thus, linear processes like iron corrosion in strong acids, where corrosion products go away immediately, can be modeled. Besides, phenomena like atmospheric corrosion of engineering alloys (Fe, Cu, Al, and Zn) behavior are not linear, and, instead, equations as bi-logarithmic have been applied successfully many times. Equations that try to adjust to the thermodynamic and kinetic features happening in real situations. For example, some equations distinguish corrosive attack at the beginning of exposure from progression afterward. Many studies have been reported in the literature, including equations predicting the behavior of several building materials deduced from specific sites across the planet in particular periods. Yet there are no universal equations, valid wherever and whenever. Fortunately, more advanced mathematical tools than the simpler equations have been developed and applied to better model corrosion processes. These are statistical methods, including conceptual, analytical, probability-based, and knowledge-based models. In particular, the last ones have been applied to corrosion studies. Knowledge-based modeling approaches have evolved from the last decades of the twentieth century to the powerful tool today, named machine learning – ML, as a prominent constituent of the Artificial Intelligence tools. ML is one of the radical innovations shaping the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In such a condition, it is possible to solve more complex, multi-objective problems. Some of the essential methods available today that must be considered by Corrosionists dealing with the prediction of the corrosion phenomena includes Markov chains, Monte Carlo simulation, grey relational analysis, artificial neural networks, and its several derivate methods, support vector regression, expert systems, fuzzy logic, genetic models, and, obviously, machine learning where the previous methods merge. A plethora of options are often combinable or complementary and may be considered depending on the requirements of a situation and the possibilities of data processing.
On the other side, it is crucial to consider adding different approaches to the corrosion studies. Future corrosion and anticorrosion engineering must pass through a more multidisciplinary and complex approach. For example, corrosion processes, including the flow of fluids, such as weather or ocean situations, water flow in a pipe, airflow around a building, etc., can be studied by mechanics of fluids. So, modeling with equations like the Navier-Stokes could be very useful because it is possible to handle variables such as temperature and pollutants distribution.
In all the cases, numerical techniques such as finite element method, finite difference method, boundary element method, and computational fluids dynamics are helpful for processing vast amounts of data. In addition, recent improvements in computing capability open a new horizon for computationally intensive modeling options. Currently, supercomputers are available for processing enormous amounts of information in a relatively short time. Besides, quantum computers are being developed. They will achieve instantaneous calculations that would take hundreds of millions of years to complete in a supercomputer.
Corrosion and anticorrosion engineering must become increasingly scientific and less empirical. The prediction of the behavior of materials and industrial assets must use the most advanced mathematical tools. That is why the simulation, modeling, and prediction of corrosion phenomena must increasingly be based on tools such as ML. An adequate prediction avoids loss of money, leakages of pollutants, fires, the collapse of buildings, and so on. Any one of them justifies the efforts of the Corrosionists using the best tools at their fingertips.
Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!
Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.
Materials Biz News
Opportunity of taking advantage of the European atmospheric test sites infrastructure
Thanks to the efforts of the WP25 Atmospheric Corrosion group of the European Federation of Corrosion, coordinated by colleagues Tomas Prosek and Johan Tiblad, the first edition of a catalog of atmospheric corrosion field exposure sites in Europe is now available. Altogether, 43 sites are described in the Catalogue covering all types of environments (rural, urban, industrial, marine, and high UV), different climatic zones (from Athens to the north of Norway), levels of industrial pollution, chloride deposition, humidity, and, of course, corrosivity. For example, the yearly corrosion rate per square meter for copper ranges from 0.6 g·in Katowice, Poland, to 89 g in Helgoland, Germany, covering the whole scale of corrosivity categories from C1 to CX as defined in ISO 9223. Each site is carefully described in terms of geographical location, nature, length of operation, corrosivity, environmental parameters, type of available exposure racks and space, and contact details. The main aim of the Catalogue is to help industry and researchers find sites with required conditions for outdoor corrosion tests and provide a general overview of what is available. The Catalogue is available free of charge at:
The steel industry is required to amortize up to $70 billion in assets if it continues to rely on coal
According to the International Energy Agency, the global steel industry needs to cut emissions from 2019 levels by more than half by 2050 to meet Paris Agreement targets. Caitlin Swalec, the lead author of the report, added that: “Based on projections from the IEA and other groups, most likely by 2030-2040. It could be sooner if more aggressive carbon taxes or restrictions are enforced ”. According to the report, steelmakers have pledged to shift to net zero and low carbon emissions that cover more than three-quarters of the current global steel capacity.
Companies in the sector are considering electric arc furnaces while developing hydrogen and carbon capture technologies to reduce emissions.
US naval aviation to get a bird’s-eye view on corrosion
Built by Simple Technology Solutions under the SBIR contract with the DON Office of Naval Research and in conjunction with maintenance experts in the Navy's Naval Enterprise Sustainability Technology Group, redOx uses aircraft commercially available drones and Google's cloud-native computer vision capabilities to provide inspectors with a visual view of corrosion and actionable data in near real time. Instead of sifting and analyzing thousands of images, redOx prioritizes severe corrosion cases and locations that will require human analysis and intervention. Department of Transport's Maritime Bureau with 90% accuracy and very little bias. MARAD assets will also be used in the next phase of redOx.
Strengthening the EU aerospace industry by optimizing design for inspection
Non-destructive assessment techniques based on ultrasound, energy harvesting, and wireless sensor networks are increasingly effective in monitoring damage in aerospace. However, there is an urgent need to integrate these approaches and techniques from the design of an aircraft. To integrate these approaches and meet future challenges, the COST action: Optimizing Design for Inspection, launched in 2019, has established a network of leading European experts in several key areas to develop an integrated framework for Optimized auto-detection structures capable of diagnosis and prognosis. In this context, the action has effectively established an interdisciplinary network of mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, materials science of 29 countries. They aim to connect researchers in academia, including early career researchers and industry, who share a vision of delivering safer and greener aerospace travel.
Position: Ph.D. student in Materials and Manufacturing.
Seeker: Jönköping University.
Location: Jönköping, Sweden.
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: Master’s degree or have achieved at least 240 credits.
● Skills: Professional ability to express yourself in writing and speaking in the English language, as expected, and demonstrate the ability to work efficiently, conscientiously, and professionally both independently and in an international team environment with colleagues from both academy and industry including knowledge in physical metallurgy and thermodynamics and hands-on experience with metal microstructural characterization techniques.
● Bonus: The ability to speak and write in Swedish is meritorious, as the work is in close collaboration with Swedish companies.
Job description: Jönköping University is seeking a Ph.D. student willing to completing prescribed doctoral courses in accordance with an individual study plan, writing a licentiate thesis and in the long run also a doctoral dissertation also complete research includes the whole value-chain of alloy design and development, integrating high-throughput screening algorithms combined with computational thermodynamics (ThermoCalc), empirical models and mechanistic approaches for alloy design.
Seeker: Airswift Trusted.
Location: Perth, Australia.
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: Degree level in technical or engineering discipline or equivalent.
● Experience: 15+ experience in planning and analysis of inspection of pressure systems in hydrocarbon production, LNG, petrochemical, or process industries also experience in the offshore marine environment
● Skills: Knowledge of relevant Australian standards such as AS3788 or equivalent international standards also knowledge of AINDT NDT codes, standards, and procedures including skill in principles and application of Risk-Based Inspection and knowledge of principles and application of Non-Intrusive Inspection NII.
Job description: Airswift Trusted is seeking a Materials and Corrosion Inspector willing to develop and implement long and short-term inspection plans and scopes of work and review and analyze results of inspections, assessing trends and reporting in accordance with company requirements, also plan, execute and report the results of inspections in accordance with the requirements of the Inspection Quality System (IQS)
Position: Associate Professor in Chemical Engineering
Seeker: Monash University
Location: Clayton, Australia.
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: A doctoral qualification in Chemical Engineering and/or recognized significant experience in the relevant discipline area.
● Skills: A strong publication record in high-quality journals or equivalent and outstanding contribution to the discipline and a record of successful supervision of postgraduate research students and the ability to make a significant contribution to postgraduate training programs also a high level of interpersonal skills and a proven ability to establish good working relationships with colleagues, students and members of community and professional bodies
Job description: Monash University is seeking an associate professor in chemical Engineering willing to prepare the delivery of lectures, tutorials, practical classes, demonstrations, workshops, and clinical sessions also Initiate and development of course materials and course coordination, including offering guidance to assistant lecturers and supervision of sessional staff in teaching units if required.
Position: Underwater Maintenance Planner
Seeker: Calaya Engineering Services.
Location: Port Harcourt, Rivers, Nigeria.
The basic profile of the candidate:
● Education: University Degree or Higher National Diploma in any Discipline
● Experience: Minimum of 3 years of work experience in Oil & Gas.
● Skills: Knowledge and ability to translate commercial objectives to technical specifications and vice versa and provide advisory on optimal solutions also, experience and working knowledge of data mining and analysis using statistical including analytical system (SAS), problem-solving, reporting and presentation.
● Bonus: Specialty in Accounting or Finance preferred, and experience in petrochemical industries is a plus.
Job description: Calaya Engineering Services seeks an underwater maintenance planner willing to carry out an annual budget proposal, including planning and monthly budget performance review and report status. Also, make input during alignments to request feedback from the Team Lead and Supervisors to develop maintenance campaign programs and monitor compliance. You will need to be responsible for archiving all departmental documents and reports in the approved company’s record system and preparing and submitting periodic performance reports for the department.
Networking & Knowledge Exchange
Brazil is going to return to host one of the major worldwide events of corrosion, ICC – INTERNATIONAL CORROSION CONGRESS. The first one, the 7th edition, was held in Rio de Janeiro, organized by ABRACO. This year, Brazil, together with the International Corrosion Council - ICC, is facing a great challenge by organizing the first virtual edition of ICC congresses which will be held from 20th to 23rd July together with the INTERCORR, the most representative Brazilian corrosion prevention event, and World Corrosion Organization workshop, under the nomination of ICC INTERCORR WCO 2021. The Congress program includes six plenary lectures by worldwide recognized Corrosionists from the five continents, Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, and America (North and South). The congress also includes 19 keynote speakers distributed within 15 Technical Sessions. The expectation is to have 283 recorded paper presentations, 160 oral, and 123 posters. During the event, the 38th Exhibition of Corrosion Prevention and Control Technologies will be held. It will be an excellent opportunity for you to know the products and services of the most active companies in the sector through a modern and innovative online exhibition. The visit is free and will take place from the 20th to the 23rd of July, 24 h per day.
Drawing for visitors! Everyone who visits at least ten stands will participate for prizes to be drawn at the end of the event. According to our colleague Zehbour Panossian, President of ABRACO and the organizing committee of the Conference, “it is a great honor to organize this virtual event and welcome all participants from all over the world to enjoy these days of online experience exchange.”
ICMCEPT001 conference will gather eminent scientists, researchers from universities to exchange and share experiences and research results on all aspects of technical ceramics structures and corrosion. There will be several selected high-impact papers. You will be attending topics like:
● Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies
● Marine Corrosion and Fouling
● Biofilms and Microbial Fouling
● Metals and Surface Engineering
Dates: From Monday, July 19th to Tuesday, July 20th, 2021.
CIP 2 - Coating Inspector Level 2. In-person
Spanish-speaking people. Colombian Association of Corrosion Engineers offers a five-day course focused on advanced inspection techniques and specialized application methods for steel and non-steel substrates, including concrete that uses non-destructive and destructive techniques. It also covers surface preparation, coating types, inspection criteria, laboratory testing, and failure modes for various coatings, including specialized coatings and coatings. At the end of the course, you will be able to explain the advanced theory of corrosion with an introduction to cathodic protection when used with coatings and identify the types of environmental controls, equipment, and care that the inspector must have also handle advanced environmental testing instruments and inspection activities associated with the use of digital electronic hygrometers, data logging, and wind speed monitors.
Date: Monday,July 12th to Friday, July 16th of 2021.
Venue: Bogota, Colombia
The Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran, offers a two-day educational program to cover color and colorants topics as color physics, colorants and coloration technology, pigments, and glaze technology on symposium A. Symposium B will be considering topics as surface coatings and corrosion, including coating raw materials, smart and functional coatings, and environmental degradation.
Dates: From Wednesday, October 13th to Thursday, October 14th, 2021.