Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️

June 08, 2021

Quote of the week: .''Persistence is to the character of man as carbon is to steel.” — Napoleon Hill, U.S.A. writer, 1883-1970

From The Editor's Corner


An urban world

Migration forces are concentrating people just in a few places around the world. Reasons primarily associated with a better quality of life are driving moving from the countryside and smaller towns to larger and larger metropolitan centers. Megacities and mid-size cities (over 500.000 inhabitants) are growing in number and size. In a study by Cristina Poiata from Z Creative Labs and reported by the World Economic Forum, it is concluded that such a steady trend has to be dramatic since 1950. The world’s urban population in 1950 was 751 million and in 2018 reached 4.200 million. Nowadays, almost half the world’s population (48%) lives in cities, a quarter lives in rural areas (24%), and the remainder live in towns & semi-dense regions (28%). Perspectives show the same pattern of urban growth over the coming decades, reaching over 55% of the people living in cities in 2050. This accelerated urbanization also modifies the shape and constraints of urban infrastructure. New measurements of conservation, recovery, maintenance and construction (both spatial expansion and densification) are required, including anti-corrosion measurements and ensuring the integrity of urban assets for a better life.

Cities as spaces of atmospheric corrosion

One of the drawbacks of city life is contamination. In particular, the atmospheres of the cities have become polluted hot spots. Some centuries ago, concerns about the atmospheric deterioration of buildings due to atmospheric pollution began to receive attention from engineers in places like London. Currently, such matters are spread to many other locations, including corrosion problems by natural and anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. Studies are often related to historic buildings and cultural heritage at risk in Havana, Paris, or elsewhere. The biggest challenge under the Circular Economic Guidelines is to pay attention to all materials supporting urban infrastructure. Consequently, design criteria must be changed, looking for building lives of centuries instead of decades. General planned long lives and not just sporadic long lives by coincidence.

As usual, atmospheric corrosion factors affecting urban structures comprise variables of the affected material, variables concerning the corrosive atmosphere, and others related to the interaction between the material and the environment. Most of the time, long-term historic buildings were built with the noblest materials such as stone, copper alloys, etc. Besides, wood and unprotected steel are examples of low resistant materials facing the environmental aggressiveness of the urban atmospheres. In addition, other factors regarding climatological variables (precipitation, solar radiation, temperature, wind, etc.), nature and levels of the atmospheric pollutants, the geometry of the interaction between material and corrosive, and the nature of the corrosion products are essential in the definition of the deterioration rate of materials used in urban buildings.

Studies developed during the 20th century have shown the significant effect of the First and Second Industrial Revolutions on the integrity of urban infrastructure. Many of the cities around the globe became industrial regions, and atmospheric pollution was a characteristic of the main cities during the 19th century and more than half of the 20th century. Problems of deterioration of old and novel urban structures were a common situation. The high levels of pollutants like CO₂, SOₓ, particulate matter, and others, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal), attacked buildings. During this period, atmospheric corrosion caused great concern, and corrosionists studied and understood the phenomena e phenomena but developed anticorrosive measurements like new alloys, paints, new design criteria, etc. Contemporary to the emergence of the Third Industrial Revolution, in the 1970s, a great concern about a more sustainable development moved the higher pollutant industries from the cities in the developed countries to other places and countries. Effects on the material’s behavior were evident, as shown with a collection of studies led by Professor Vladimir Kucera in Stockholm on the impact of the urban pollutant reduction trends in many European capitals. However, other atmospheric pollution problems arose. Higher combustion temperatures resulted in higher NOₓ concentrations. The use of alcohol as a fuel increased the volatile organic compounds - VOC, the growth of the automotive fleet rocketed the particulate matter levels, and other “forgotten” pollutants started to be relevant to the corrosion processes. Also, transboundary pollution was recognized as an essential factor, including acidic deposition as one of the main factors. Finally, climate change appeared a few years ago to be the most significant risk for the planet’s stability. This is the beginning of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the world of integrating digital and material things. The world of the citizens, the people from the cities.

How much does the damage cost?

Approaches to the cost of atmospheric deterioration of urban infrastructure have been adopted during recent decades. Some of these studies have developed by the Swedish group, using a model that starts with the estimation of the stock of materials at risk and the pollution levels, the calculation of the serviced life and the cost of maintenance/replacement, and, finally, the estimation of the economic impact of the exposure to the urban atmosphere. This type of method was to estimate the direct cost of corrosion damage in European cities. Besides, the material inventory for Hong Kong over 1993 - 1999 was 461 million m² of surfaces that must be maintained and repaired because of corrosion deterioration. Also, a calculation of the corrosion cost of a specific material in Chinese urban areas showed that the corrosion cost of the galvanized products in 1990 was about USD $156 million. Then, considering different scenarios, costs moved to USD $195 if the SO₂ level were doubled. Or USD $127 if such pollution were reduced to 50%. Then, an approach to the economic loss of materials by acid rain in China in 2013 showed that such an amount was about 0.057% of the GDP and 3.4% of the total investment for environmental pollution handling. A more recent study about the maintenance of the façades of historical buildings in Oslo concluded that the cost of wearing and soiling over 2002 - 2014 was about USD $2 per m² and year.

Smart cities are arriving, and intelligent anticorrosion solutions are expected

Cities evolve to provide adequate shelter for the entire population within them. The abatement of the pollution levels is a trend worldwide. Materials are changing, too. Global warming is a new condition. New ways of interaction between atmosphere materials are arising. The circularity of urban infrastructure is mandatory. Integration of the digital and physical worlds is evident. The future awaits us with an increasing number of large cities, with other requirements about corrosion and protection of the urban infrastructure, including traditional and new atmospheric corrosion challenges. There are coming intelligent urban areas, but very delicate to take care of. A situation that will need innovative anticorrosion measurements, and we must ready for that.

Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!

Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.

Materials Biz News

New Mobile paint simulator

The academy has used different versions of the paint simulator in the past, but the latest 4D technology allows mobile training teams to travel with equipment and provide instructions with real-time results while eliminating costs. Also, this simulator, which is packed in a medium-hard plastic case, can be set up in minutes and provides users with instant feedback: mark areas with green if the right amount of color is used, blue to mark more and show too much color in red. In addition to helping painters become more efficient, it also helps protect aircraft from corrosion.

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Upfront investments can pay off big later

Ship linings and maintenance schedules may need to be reassessed soon because of extended turnstiles over the past year or sudden long waits in congested ports with the resurgence of global trade. Jotun’s Hull Skating Solutions package begins by applying SeaQuantumSkate, a slick antifouling coating that answers the polishing problem by matching the bottom paint to its ROV hull cleaners brushes. As a result, fuel use and exhaust pollution are always minimized, never worsened, or compromised in any up-and-down cycles of biofouling and cleaning. The software monitors performance and lowers costs in real-time. The initial cost is higher, but it pays for itself quickly.

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Omniflex partners with IEV to bring remotely monitored cathodic protection

Omniflex has partnered with Malaysian company IEV Group to supply remotely monitored and controlled cathodic protection (CP) systems to the South East Asia region. CPR systems are frequently used to protect steel and concrete structures, such as tanks, bridges, piers, and industrial pipelines, from corrosion. Remote monitoring is the most practical and economical method of managing CP systems. The first product available through the partnership is the industry-proven PowerView CP, a remotely monitored and controlled CP system installed to monitor the performance of new or existing impressed current and galvanic CP installations.

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Corrosion instructor for US personnel in Japan

Position: Product Training Specialist.

Seeker: Jp talent.

Location: Iwakuni, Japan.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Associate degree and technical training in a relevant technical field.

● Experience: At least five years of practical hands-on experience obtained within the past seven years. Two additional years of relevant experience may be substituted for the degree requirement, or two years of past work experience must be at or above the military E5 level or non-military equivalent experience: Senior Journeyman level, Senior Electronics or Engineering Technician level, etc.

● Skills: Must have strong teamwork, communication skills and work well independently also liaison with all levels of the assigned military chain of command required, including senior leadership.

Job description: Jp talent is seeking a product training specialist willing to provide on-site academic instruction and on-equipment proficiency training to US Navy and Marine Corps - USMC -personnel, technical specialist, and other Government employees, on the prevention, inspection, and treatment of corrosion on Navy and USMC aviation platforms and systems.

Expert on the thermal characterization of materials

Position: Materials Engineer.

Seeker: Apple.

Location: Singapore, Singapore.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Degree in Materials/Chemistry Engineering or equivalent.

● Experience: Three or more years of experience in materials research and characterization by DMA/TMA/DSC/Rheometer/TGA.

● Skills: Ability to work independently, yet also be a strong team-player who thrives in dynamic and ever-changing work environments also must have the ability to articulate issues quantitatively both verbally and with documentation

Job description: The person selected should be in charge of selecting, characterization, and optimization of adhesive and interconnect materials for electrical and optical modules and packaging.

Caring of engines and structures

Position: Mechanical Engineer.

Seeker: At Trane Technologies.

Location: Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering with five or more years experience in design and product development.

● Experience: Product/systems design, including mechanical/structural and combustion engine design.

● Skills: Ability to work independently and be a strong team player who thrives in dynamic and ever-changing work environments. Also, must have the ability to articulate issues quantitatively, both verbally and with documentation. Also excellent technical, analytical, and problem-solving skills and verbal and written communication skills in English.

● Bonus: Mechanical engineering background preferred. Experience in refrigeration/cooling systems would be a strong asset.

Job description: The incumbent will be in charge of maintaining diesel engines and all the associated structures to guarantee their control and safety protection in Thermo King products.

Networking & Knowledge Exchange

Magnesium alloys and their applications. Virtual

TMS (The Minerals, Metals HYPERLINK ""& HYPERLINK "" Materials Society) will convene the global research community to explore the latest discoveries in magnesium, both fundamental and applied. This conference will cover the entire scope of magnesium research and development as well. Some of the keynote speakers will be:

● Alan A. Luo, Ohio State University.

● Mihriban O. Pekguleryuz, McGill University.

● Sean R. Agnew, University of Virginia.

● John E. Allison, University of Michigan.

Date: From Tuesday to Friday, June 15th to 18th of 2021.

Time: From 8:00 to 12:30 each day, EST (GMT - 4).

International Pipeline Geotechnical Conference (IPG). Virtual

ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and ARPEL (The Regional Association of Oil, Gas, and Biofuels sectors companies in Latin America and the Caribbean) are joining efforts to organize the 4th biennial International Pipeline Geotechnical Conference (IPG 2021). This is an international event aimed at sharing knowledge, fostering international cooperation, and promoting technical progress by advancing the management of forces impacting pipelines and the associated risks. Some of the more relevant topics are:

● Landslides and mass movement.

● Tectonics/seismicity — including fault crossings and liquefaction.

● Hydrotechnical — including river scour and channel migration.

● Erosion and upheaval displacement.

● Landslides and mass movement

● Geochemical — including karst and acid rock drainage

● Unique soil structure — including residual and sensitive soils

● Desert mechanisms — including dune migration

● Volcanic mechanisms

● Freezing of unfrozen ground

● Thawing of permafrost terrain

Dates: Monday and Tuesday, June 21st and 22nd, 2021.

Time: From 9:00 to 17:15 each day, GMT - 3.

XIV Italian Corrosion and Protection Meeting. Virtual.

The Italian Association of Metallurgy, the Association for the Corrosion Protection, and NACE Milano Section, headed by Prof. Emma Angelini from the Politecnico di Torino, are joining efforts to organize this new meeting point as the opportunity for the discussion and comparison of the latest and under-development scientific and technological issues in the field of corrosion and protection of materials.

Dates: Tuesday to Friday, June 29th to July 2nd, 2021.

Photo by Jonathan Kemper on Unsplash