Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️
November 09, 2021
Quote of the week: “Adversity causes some men to break; others to break records.” William Arthur Ward, US writer (1921 – 1994).
From The Editor's Corner
The new giants
Seven thousand years ago, boats navigated along the Nile River by the power of the wind force. Water pumping and food milling techniques moved from China to Europe through Central Asia, including the giant enemies that Don Quixote battles in the famous Spanish novel and then to America. And the Second Industrial Revolution also found wind electricity generators which were superseded by oil. But the oil 1970s oil crisis puts on the table again wind energy generation as an option. Europe, a region highly dependent on foreign energy, fueled huge wing energy farms, particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark. However, the rising environmental crisis since the 1990s has promoted the consolidation of wind energy renascence. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in 1990, 16 countries generated 3.600 GWh. In 2019, 127 countries, with China at the head (39% of the total installations onshore and 28% offshore), generated 1.42 million GWh of wind electricity. A blowup and expansion of projects.** *Last year* had a record yearly growth of 53% compared to 2019—a record year for onshore installations in the Asia Pacific, North America, and Latin America. Meanwhile, offshore installations also rise quickly. Total offshore wind capacity represented 4.8% of the total global cumulative capacity, with China, the Netherlands, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal, the USA, and South Korea. The projected annual growth in the global wind energy market is 4 percent, with additional capacity over the next five years exceeding 469 GW. On the other side, equipment is growing. A Chinese *company*** unveiled a 16 MW wind turbine with an annual energy production of 80 GWh, enough to power more than 20.000 households. In addition, the expected reduction in CO₂ emissions during 25 years of operation is 1.6 million tons. Dimensions of the turbine are 264 m in height, 118 m blades length, and 242 m rotor diameter. All this boiling development is related to reaching net-zero energy or carbon neutral goals for global warming mitigation and the transition to a sustainable future.
Now, with the energy transition and the decarbonization of the economy, wind energy is once again becoming a powerful tool. Besides, sustainability issues generated by the wind energy industry are rising too. Regions with experience of more than 40 years dealing with giant aero generators are in front of some serious problems. This is the case in Europe, where social rejection has become an increasingly important political issue. Facts concerning visual impact, the negative effect on the landscape, the risk of accidents for births, and noise contamination are themes under constant consideration. As a result, all regions increased new onshore installations, except only three regions, Europe included. Answers to such a challenge include the invention of the so-called “wind turbine wall” or the “kinetic wall,” made of an elegant array of rotary blades, driving an electricity generator. Another innovation concerns** *a vertical axis wind turbine* or a wind energy generator without the long blades well known to most of us. Moreover, the most effective alternative to terrestrial installations today is offshore facilities exposed to more coherent and abundant wind regimes mentioned earlier.This is the example of some European countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Portugal) with more than 100 offshore wind farms. It is also essential to *mention* the US government’s decision to accelerate offshore wind projects, moving from 42 MW today towards 30.000 MW this decade and envisioning 44.000 people directly employed by the sector. In the same way, the establishment of a USD $20 million offshore wind training institute in New York has been decided. Furthermore, last May 11th, the Federal Government *approved* the first big offshore wind farm in the US. This project includes 62 giant turbines located in the Atlantic Ocean, about 25 km from the Massachusetts coast, which is expected to give 800 MW and power 400.000 homes with clean energy in 2023. *Furthermore*, the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has awarded 13 commercial wind energy leases off the Atlantic Coast. Conventional wind farms are considered initially, moving most of the environmental effects from the land to the ocean and increasing them in some instances. This is the case with corrosion problems and assets integrity, which intensify because of the new severe marine environmental conditions and other infrastructure such as submarine cable connections. In some way, Corrosionists have the advantage of some decades dealing with O&G offshore engineering. Experience includes training options like the *NACE (AMPP) course* to be offered by the *Colombian Association of Corrosion Engineers* at the end of the month. Further innovation must be arriving. For example, less invasive installations as *floating wind farms* are being developed. But many problems have not yet been solved concerning the integration of material handling in the Circular Economy guidelines. The *expected*** wind farm wastes for 2050 could be over 43 million tons.
The starting point could be the lifespan design of the generator, including foundation, turbine, blades, and all the other structural and functional parts and components. Current designs for onshore installations are for 20–30 years. This is the reason for the growing trouble with old equipment in the USA and Europe right now. Around 12.000 blades have been disposed of yearly. Palliative solutions for the long and strong old blades have included buried cemeteries and reuse in construction structures (e.g., roofs of bus stops and bicycle garages). The second-hand market for less developed countries is another option, but how safe is it? Recycling is a good option. This is the proposal by Ventos Metódicos, a Portugal-based company transforming wind blades into several kinds of furniture like chairs, tables, lamps, shelves, etc. One more proposal is presented by the Spaniard start-up Reciclalia, a company supported by the National Center for Metallurgical Research in Madrid, devoted to decommissioning wind farms, including glass and carbon fiber recovery from the blades. With the pass to offshore wind farms, deterioration risks will be rocketed, and challenges will become even more severe. Solutions must be more drastic, including better designs, new and more corrosion-resistant materials, better maintenance procedures, much longer span-lives, and better decommissioning practices. More sustainable and resilient wind farm installations.
In addition to ecological issues and impact on other sectors like fishing and sailing, other facts must be attended, such as the building of offshore substations; a robust system of subsea export cables; the upgrading of the coastal grid to receive the offshore energy; installation of new transmission lines and the interconnection to the existing facilities. All of them are exciting opportunities added to the specific chances directly related to aero generators: A larger as possible equipment with buried or submersed parts exposed to the stagnant electrolyte, or splash and tidal zones, waves, and winds of changing intensity, including hurricanes, and transporting abrasive particulate matter. Then, an elevated risk of intense corrosive attack, combined with mechanical stresses such as fatigue and erosion, and microbiological effects as well. However, longer operational lifetimes and minimization of inspections and maintenance duties are required. Corrosion science and engineering have a significant role to play. In other words, we are entering a scenario of great opportunities for Corrosionists!
Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!
Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.
Materials Biz News
3D construction service provider Metalforge used its in-house 3D printing capabilities to quickly build and deliver heat exchanger parts to one of the O&G organization Shell's offshore facilities. 3D Metalforge claims that by extending the useful life of these parts and supplying them at a record rate, Shell has positively helped groups on Jurong Island reduce the period of inactivity, 3D Metalforge can provide a full range of manufacturing, design consulting and training services with a strong portfolio of SLM, DED, MJF and FFF 3D printers as well as post-processing devices, in 2017, the company opened its Additive Manufacturing Center in Singapore, a complex with end-to-end manufacturing capabilities built to target the offshore, oil and gas, and construction industries.
The Royce Materials 4.0 viability and Pilot Scheme aims to provide short-term funding for research, development and innovation projects that develop new digital techniques and technologies that have the potential to enable transformative changes in role, individuals applying for funding, Royce materials will seek feasibility study proposals to develop digital tools, protocols and procedures to expedite the discovery and testing of materials, including but not limited to the following three zones:
● Materials informatics
● New computational data science and mathematical protocols
● Cyber-physical systems and automation
The wonders of additive construction and technological innovation in the spotlight at the launch of the Maritime Drone Estate: there is no doubt that additive construction, as popular as 3D printing, is a novelty corresponding to construction. Thyssenkrupp and Wilhelmsen have recently reached a key milestone by successfully digitizing, printing, testing, and supplying a drone cooling water connector for the MMA, MMA Monarch, at the launch of the Maritime Drone Estate in Singapore.
Networking & Knowledge Exchange
Webinar in corrosion sciences. Virtual
The Fontana Corrosion Center of The Ohio University is offering a series of webinars to build and maintain a worldwide community of scientists with mutual interests in corrosion science. The following presentation will be devoted to “data-driven design and application of corrosion-resistant low-alloy steels“. The invited speaker is Prof. Xiaogang Li form the University of Science and Technology Beijing. Presentation will be of about 45 minutes length and a discussion of about 15 minutes.
Date: Thursday, November 18th of 2021.
Hour: 8:00 (GMT - 5)
NACE Gateway India Section is offering a conference for exchange of information on matters concerning corrosion, learning about existing and upcoming products and technologies and networking. You will be attending topics such as:
● Cathodic and anodic protection
● Coatings, linings, and thermal insulation
● Corrosion in chemical and fertilizer industries
● Marine corrosion offshore
● Corrosion in O&G industries
Date: FromThursday, November 18th to Saturday November 20th of 2021.
Tecnalia is offering an online course showing various methods for corrosion protection and monitoring. It will be a course with emphasis on those sectors where corrosion is a particularly serious problem. Included subjects are hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion in reinforced concrete, tests for corrosion evaluation, accelerated lab tests, and test alternatives in controlled real environments. In the end, a series of case studies of failure analysis will be discussed.
Dates: FromWednesday, November 17th to Friday, November 19th of 2021.
Hours: From 09:00 to 17:55 (GMT + 1)
November 9th Corrosion and Scale Inhibition, Theory, Testing, Application (Link)
November 9th Meeting of the task force on offshore energy. (Link)
November 10th How to correctly identify stainless steel. (Link)
November 17th Corrosion Engineering Course - 6th edition. (Link)
November 18th Webinar in corrosion sciences. (Link)
November 19th Corrosion control and mitigation conference from NACE (Link)
2021 Corrosion science symposium and advances in corrosion protection by organic coatings (Link)