Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️

August 10, 2021

Quote of the week: “ Time alters all things.” - Horace (65 – 8 BCE), Roman lyric poet.

From The Editor's Corner

Protecting more than assets

Culture guarantees the future

AkzoNobel proudly announced a few weeks ago that the Company is collaborating with the conservation of the Royal Concert Hall in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The primary aim is “to pass the building to the next generation in top conditions.” According to the media, this is one more step in line with his concerns about preserving cultural heritage for future generations. Previously, AkzoNobel partnered with the renovation of the Dutch Royal Barge, the Van Gogh Museum, and the Rijksmuseum, including the sponsorship of two Ph.D. candidates in the museum’s restoration lab. Culture is a fundamental constituent of people’s lives. Its preservation is essential, and the care of the cultural heritage is a fundamental component of this legacy.

UNESCO says that “Culture is who we are and what shapes our identity. No development can be sustainable without including culture. Culture is both an enabler and a driver of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.” One of its pillars is cultural heritage, and this one includes intangible, but also many tangible heritages, all of them directly concern with materials and asset protection:

● Movable cultural heritage: Paintings, sculptures, coins, manuscripts.

● Immovable cultural heritage: Monuments, archaeological sites, and so on.

● Underwater cultural heritage: Shipwrecks, underwater ruins, and cities.

Such considerations account for the AkzoNobel efforts and many other examples that we can find around the world. We can say that monumental icons are culture, and they must be in the basement of the expected sustainable development. There are reasons for the protection and preservation of socially appreciated monuments within the frame of the present culture, either of small or large conglomerates of people.

One of the most international icons is the Statue of Liberty, the “Mother of Exiles” or “Lady Liberty.” The beacon is welcoming immigrants on Ellis Island, in the Upper Bay of New York City harbor. As explained in a famous report by our colleagues Robert Baboian and E. Blaine Cliver in Materials Performance 35 years ago, corrosion problems of its structure put under severe risk the sculpture some decades ago. A generalized galvanic pair was established between the copper skin and the steel reinforcement exposed to the very aggressive atmospheric environment at the mouth of the Hudson River meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the 1980s, a four-year refurbish was done, with a cost of almost USD $100 million in today’s money. In addition, the US National Park Service estimates that its yearly maintenance cost, including the island, is about USD $6 million.

Something similar happens with the Eiffel Tower, the “Iron Lady,” in Paris. A tower built to be an icon. Consequently, the same Gustave Eiffel designed maintenance work after erection as a condition for future generations to preserve. As a result, the tower has been re-painted 19 times, an average of once every seven years. The total area of atmospheric exposure is approximately 220 tennis courts, the eroded paint between painting campaigns is about 15 tons, and the required paint for re-painting is around 60 tons. Furthermore, the yearly maintenance cost is over USD $1 million. In preparation for the 2024 Summer Olympic games, it plans a makeover of the Iron Lady, with a budget of about USD $61 million.

Also clearly associated with the above situation are religious icons. We are talking about figures, images, temples, and so on. Conserving them for future generations is more than a cultural necessity. A specific example has been mentioned recently in social networks. It is related to the partnership between the Yangon Technological University (YTU), the National Museum, and the Minister of Culture of Myanmar with the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. A consortium aimed to study the corrosion problems happening at the Au/polymer/Cu interfaces of the roof of the most important Buddhist temple in Myanmar, the Schwedagon pagoda landmark in Yangon (Rangoon), a city with over 5 million inhabitants and a typical marine and tropical monsoon climate. The 98 m high roofs of the temple are covered by 50 tons of gold leaf glued to an internal structure of copper. As the gold-bearing top is severely corroded, the roof must be reconstructed every five years. Then, the mentioned partnership, search for sustainable solutions to the current problem, and a research team, under the supervision of our colleagues Herman Terryn and Tom Hauffman, is working on that. Fortunately, sometimes the relationship between materials and the surrounding environment is kind, and icons stand for more than millennials. Also, exciting situations because the reasons for the good behavior that we can learn. This is the case of the Great Kamakura Buddha, which, according to the document by Eng. Gustavo Romero, Penspen's Director of Operations for Latin America, the bronze statue of Amida Buddha in Kamakura, is the second-largest Buddha in Japan. The statue is 13.35 m tall and weighs 93 tons, made in a bronze structure, bathed initially in gold, completed in 1262, and exposed outdoors since 1498. The unique characteristic of the bronze is that it contains a high percentage of Pb, about 17%, which could be the reason for the good behavior in a marine and industrial atmosphere (Tokyo – Yokohama region) for several centuries. Maintenance is sporadic, and the most recent response took place in 2016, after 50 years of the previous one. Sometimes, high corrosion-resistant materials are used by design, and usually, the behavior is as expected. This is the situation in many places with stainless steel and weathering steel sculptures, facades, etc. Also, with constructions using Ti alloys as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

History as part of a country’s culture is reflected in a Swedish currently exposed to the aggressiveness of the atmosphere. It is the Vasa ship. A warship which is conserved in the Vasa Museum in Stockholm, Sweden. It was built in the 1620s, launched in March of 1627, sank on August 10th of 1628 (393 years ago), was rescued 60 years ago, and publicly exhibited since 1990. In order “to preserve Vasa for future generations,” some of the facts about the corrosion problems and the anticorrosive measurements since the shipwreck, highlighted by the Vasa Museum, are:

1628 – 1961. A cold, dark, low-oxygen water environment. Only the outer few centimeters of the wood are degraded by bacteria. Almost all the 5000 iron fastenings holding the ship together corrode, and sulfur from the contaminated harbor water enters the wood.

1961. Exposure to oxygen causes chemical changes in the wood.

1962 – 1979. The ship is conserved by spraying a water-soluble wax, polyethylene glycol - PEG, to prevent cracks and shrinkages. The treatment lasts for 17 years. Thousands of mild steel bolts are inserted to hold the structure together.

1979. The sprays are stopped completely. The surface of the wood is treated with an extra layer of PEG for physical protection. Conservation is considered complete.

1990-2000. The air humidity around the ship fluctuates wildly. Moisture is absorbed by the wood and PEG. Chemical substances in the wood, such as iron and sulfur, combine with the moisture and are drawn to the surface as the wood dries. These form yellow and white acidic deposits of sulfate salts, often in combination with iron, on the surface of the wood.

2003. It is established that no micro-biological degradation of the wood occurs and that the conservation agent PEG is mainly stable.

2004. The museum's climate control system is upgraded to produce a stable year-round climate of 53 +/- 2 % and 18.5 +/- 1.5 °C.

2008-2011. The wood strength is significantly reduced. This seems to be connected to high levels of iron and increased acidity.

2011. Replacement of the 1960s bolts to increase the structural stability of the ship. Over time they have corroded, and the boat has deformed. New bolts in SAF 2707 steel were used.

2016- . The museum climate remains stable, and the acidity and strength of the wood are monitored.

The Politecnico di Torino research group led by Prof. Emma Angellini has developed systematic research into cultural heritage. As they had shown, the relationship between corrosion and history is also concerned with many other outdoor or indoor structures and artifacts. In parks, streets, or the countryside. Sometimes, it is only possible to monitor the behavior, and inside rooms or showcases, we can control the environment, too. Efforts have been considerable, but not enough. We can find corrosion problems even in the pieces of the Golden Museum in Bogota or the intervention required to avoid the microbiological deterioration of Michelangelo’s artworks at the Medici Chapel in Florence. Also, the atmospheric effects on the ornaments of a monastery in the central region of Portugal. But the issues are extended to the risk of deterioration of other kinds of cultural heritage as paintings. For example, the not-yet well-understood problem of deteriorating CdS-based oil paints used by Edvard Munch in his work “The Scream” has recently been reported. In principle, and according to the most recent analysis, photodegradation is not the culprit of discoloration. Instead, humidity and mobile chlorine compounds could be key factors in the oxidation of cadmium sulfite to sulfate.

From another point of view, we talk about humankind’s legacy for future generations that must be prepared to face global warming. More aggressive environments than ever because of more extreme natural phenomena concerning temperature, wind and rain regimes, floods, etc. Also, different anthropogenic effects related to the expected energy transition, macroclimatic interventions by geoengineering, changing cities (more digital, more extensive, denser, holding other activities (e.g., urban agriculture), etc.

In conclusion, physical, cultural goods, not virtual ones such as the non-fungible token - NFT (for which we must protect the hardware that supports them), need protection and these costs. Still, it is also worth it because we Corrosionists contribute to the sustainability of the society that succeeding generations will inherit.

Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!

Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.

Materials Biz News

Can nanotechnology remove PFAS and other persistent organic pollutants from water?

A new grant from PRIMA Québec suggests it can. The advanced materials research and innovation hub has just put over $300,000 behind an ECA development project led by three experts in the field.

Management of old water pipes in Colorado Springs

Many of the major countries take a break just a few days apart. The biggest event, the closure of a major stretch of Garden of the Gods Road for a few days, but could this kind of inconvenience be avoided in the first place, and how well is our city's infrastructure working? any? News5 delves into the answers. This is part of her mission as she works to proactively manage the city's 2,100 miles of the water distribution system. The cold weather creates frost on the ground, experts say, that can strain city pipes, but also during rainstorms, soils soak up water and expand, which can squeeze and break pipes even during the summer.

The Korean team continued archery dominance at the 2020 Tokyo games.

The Korean archery team won gold medals in the men's, women’s, and mixed teams at the Tokyo 2020 Games on July 23. It is the oldest sponsorship among all other sports associations. In addition to hosting several international archery competitions, Hyundai Motor Group continues to provide technical support to improve the records of domestic players not only by qualifying bows and arrows but also by providing equipment. optimized for each player. In this opportunity, the team received three new cutting-edge technologies. One of these new advances has been a 3D grip, which is made according to the shape of the player’s hand. In addition, the new grips could be provided in various materials so that players could free choose according to their preferences. Consequently, concerns about handling the arc are diminished, and the concentration of the game increase.


Analytical and corrosion science technologist

Position: Analytical and corrosion technologist

Seeker: Jonathan Lee.

Location: Wednesbury, West Midland, England.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Ideally educated to degree standard (appropriate discipline) or working towards relevant work experience in this area.

● Skills: Maintain competence of proper test procedures for the role following the documented management system and goal orientation with influencing skills including good analytical skills, organizing and problem-solving, and logical and decision thinking.

Job description: The company seeks an incumbent willing to ensure timely and accurate processing of the end-to-end testing process within the areas of responsibility with a focus on continuous improvement and innovation and the management system is accurately maintained with test and service records being input within the agreed format including delivering a consistently high standard of experience for customers by maintaining & championing a customer service culture, ensuring at all times adherence to client and customer service level agreements.

NDT Coordinator

Positions: NDT (Non-destructive testing) technician coordinator

Seeker: Oceaneering.

Location: Dubai, UAE.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: PCN or CSWIP certificates are preferred to third party ASNT certificates such as:

- PCN/ CSWIP/ ASNT - RT – Level 2 – Radiographic Testing (E)

- PCN/ CSWIP/ ASNT - UT – Level 2 – Ultrasonic Testing (E)

- PCN/ CSWIP/ ASNT - ET – Level 2 – Eddy Current Testing (P)

- PCN/ CSWIP/ ASNT - MT – Level 2 – Magnetic Particle Testing (P)

- PCN/ CSWIP/ ASNT - PT – Level 2 – Dye/ Liquid Penetrant Testing (P)

● Skills: Collects and researches data; Uses intuition and experience to complement data, designs workflows and procedures, gathers and analyzes information skillfully, develops alternative solutions and works well in group problem-solving situations using reason even when dealing with emotional topics, presents numerical data effectively, and be able to read and interpret written information.

Job description: Oceaneering is seeking for NDT (Non-destructive testing) technician coordinator willing to plan NDT activities and make budgets, including verification of NDT documents to prepare projects specifications

Auditing of NDT subcontractors. Coordination of NDT verifications or qualifications, preparation of closeout reports, and be responsible for completing the staff of technicians, imposing rules, and implementing compliance in terms of the guidelines and practices.

Pipeline integrity technicians

Position: Pipeline integrity and PAUT technicians

Seeker: Acuren industrial services.

Location: Edmonton, AB, Canada.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Pipeline Integrity Technicians Minimum requirements: CGSB UT2 and MT2

PAUT Technicians Minimum requirements: PCN/CSWIP PAUT Level 2

● Experience: Experience working with pipeline integrity or pipeline maintenance positions and extensive knowledge of quality and safety requirements to properly perform inspections and interpret results. CGSB Ultrasonic Level 1 with a Magnetic Particle Testing Level 2 and vast experience would be considered.

● Bonus: Familiarity with CSA Z245.1 for pipe and CSA Z662 for Pipeline Welding.

Job description: The Company seeks Pipeline Integrity Technicians and PAUT Technicians Future Pipeline Integrity Projects willing to perform a direct assessment of as-found pipe condition, including coating assessment, soils and topography, soils resistivity, and cathodic protection also assess pipe for cracks, corrosion, deformation, and manufacturing anomalies including correlating as-found pipe features to Inline Inspection (ILI) log and conduct fit-for-service evaluations as per ASME B31.3 and RSTRENG.

Networking & Knowledge Exchange

Mobile corrosion test for automotive materials. Virtual

Swedish research creating sustainable growth (RI.SE) have a unique testing facility consisting of 10 truck trailers in traffic between Stockholm and Gothenburg, one of the world's most corrosive road environments RISE is offering webinar sharing an introduction to how it works and share results from several studies performed at RISE, related to mobile exposure on trailers in Sweden and worldwide. You will also get practical examples of the benefit of this type of exposure compared to laboratory exposure and the possibility of asking questions and discussing with other stakeholders and experts.

Date: Wednesday, September 08th, 2021

EUROCORR 2021. Virtual

HUNKOR, the Hungarian Corrosion Association, on behalf of the European Federation of Corrosion, will be sharing a five-day event providing high-level scientific presentations scheduled in many parallel sessions for four days. The schedule includes plenary and keynote lectures by internationally recognized experts, workshops, discussion forums, and exhibitions to let industrial stakeholders effectively introduce themselves. Including sessions such as:

● Environment sensitive fracture

● Corrosion Mechanisms, Methods, and Modelling

● Corrosion Education

● Marine Corrosion

● Microbial Corrosion

● Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

Dates: Monday to Friday, September 20th, to 24th, 2021.

240th ECS Meeting. In-person

In-person.** The electrochemical society** will be offering a five-day event bringing together the most active researchers in academia, government, and industry professionals and students to engage, discuss, and innovate in the areas of electrochemistry and solid-state science and technology. This is the premier destination for industry professionals to experience five days of learning, technical presentations, business development, and networking opportunities.

Venue: Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

Dates: Sunday to Thursday, October 10th, to 14th, 2021.

Photo by Erik Lindgren on Unsplash