Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️

August 17, 2021

Quote of the week:  “ The only thing that is constant is change. ” - Heraclitus, Ancient Greek philosopher (~535 – c. 475 BCE).


From The Editor's Corner

A world of knowledge sources for asset protection

A route to Stockholm


​As strange as spacetime crystals appear, could be to imagine the end of corrosion phenomena. It would be something as a contradiction of the thermodynamic principles about entropy drivers. Futurologists also think about self-regenerative engineering materials as a pathway towards eternal assets. But it could happen. Nothing is definitive, and that is scientific knowledge! This is a situation related to the dream of some of the Corrosionists: To solve corrosion problems avoiding water effects on materials deterioration forever. Water is the universal solvent, but also “the universal corrosive”. How to avoid it? Nature knows how. To solve such an issue must be honored with more than a Nobel Prize. Consequently, it will be the end of the Corrosionists as a profession.



It happens


​One way of achieving such an objective might be demonstrated by nature. It is a world of materials, substances, and organisms, live or not, interacting. As we all know, bat orientation physics was the inspiration for radar innovation in the early twentieth century. Also, we have heard about the idea of butterflies’ structural coloring (self-assembly of micro and nano features found in animals) as a useful fundamental for manufacturing colorants and new paints, different that pigmented ones (found in plants, mainly), and including new anticorrosive paints.


Also, consideration on energy management, including situations regarding corrosion and anti-corrosion, and the need for new solutions against the climate warning, natural isolation, and other thermal practices found in nature, could be great engineering solutions. In summary, a plethora of ideas subjacent into the nature, bio or not, motivating biomimetic or bio-inspired solutions, but, in general, nature-inspired because many times there are inorganic solutions too: crystallographic configurations, protective skins, scales, and crusts, natural equilibria between substances and species, curious synergisms, structural forms, and so on. Inspirational ideas for handling current and coming challenges like the biomimetic façades against global warming (Kuru, A. et al. FAÇADE 2018. Final conference of COST TU1403 “Adaptive Facades Network”. Lucerne, November 26/27, 2018). Ideas from the current known world (the land could be enriched with a deeper scientific knowledge of the non-well-known part of the Earth (caves, seabed, etc.), and other planets and extraterrestrial bodies.


The starting point could be to learn much more about the “lotus” effect. It is a surface characteristic with respect to hydrophobicity or water repellency, defined by the wet contact angle greater than 90° (hydrophobicity) or 150° (super hydrophobicity), that occurs in many organisms. Some aquatic species are hydrophobic. Such behavior is due to an air layer under water, avoiding wetting. This is an interesting technical situation, especially the possibility of dredging water for anti-corrosion purposes. Also, the option of phase separation included water and oil, with the advantage of cleaner and less aggressive conditions in many practical situations as in the O&G industry. Examples of the lotus effect applied to improve the corrosion resistance of metallic alloys include Al, Cu, and Cr-Mo and stainless steel.


Other times, biomedical corrosion requirements are attended to by looking in nature, too. Bone substitutes and other orthopedic materials can be copied from nature. For example, porous metals, additively manufactured, and hydroxyapatite coatings, offer properties like natural bones, including their biocompatibility and biodegradation behavior in agreement with the healing process and, in the end, and proper bone regeneration.


As an interfacial phenomenon, corrosion is linked to several scientific and surface engineering facts. This is why studies concerning the structure and functionality of natural cellular tissues, or the droplet interface bilayer-base materials, which combine model membrane assembly techniques and droplet microfluidics, are also related to corrosion anticorrosion applications. Nowadays, approaches to such natural situations are nothing more than expectations. However, another biological phenomenon currently applied in several tissue engineering technologies, but also as anticorrosive measurement, is self-healing. This group of coatings, most of which are now commercially available, includes organic and inorganic materials and multiple types of composites. The most outstanding characteristic of self-healing coatings is their ability to self-repair local damages such as scratches, pits, and so happening during service. Mechanisms to protect against corrosion include the controlled release of a corrosion inhibitor, the swelling of macromolecular compounds, or the passivation of the exposed substrate.

Another protective coatings naturally inspired is the procurement of layered structures simulating the intercalated organic and inorganic layers of nacre, a natural organic/inorganic composite protective shell of some mollusks, resistant to mechanical and chemical stresses, with a simultaneous high toughness. In principle, the anti-corrosive behavior of some nacre mimic coatings has not been suitable. However, there is a report by researchers from the Washington State University and the Harbin Institute of Technology, China, showing exciting results using alternating coating layers of graphene oxide and an epoxy resin on steel.


Miaomiao Cui and cols. published a review about recent progress on several nature mimicking approaches. They considered some of the most critical mechanisms of anticorrosive protection by coatings about recent progress on several nature mimicking approaches. They reviewed works on the functional barrier (liquid-repellent surfaces or superhydrophobic), transport control of corrosives (self-healing epoxy coatings), and interfacial bonding with the substrate (nanofibrillar structures mimicking gecko lamellae). Their main conclusion is linked to the long road still to be traveled to take real advantage of the examples of nature. A relevant situation facing the current situation where sustainability is more important than ever, and nature mimicking could be one of the best ways to attend to such demands.


Indeed, going deeper into mimicking nature, corrosion will not disappear at all, at least in the decades ahead. It will be necessary to work hard to solve many corrosion problems. Fortunately, nature inspires Corrosionist about models on how to play our role. It offers millions of years of experience, and positive results that we can take advantage of to solve corrosion problems and, simultaneously, greener, and sustainable solutions, most of the time.

Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!

Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.

www.arroyave.co


Materials Biz News

NIST’s Champlain Towers South investigation

NIST continues its research work by examining the geological features beneath the collapsed construction site and the characteristics of the building's foundation system. Groundwater research includes field and laboratory testing of soil and rock and standard procedures for groundwater monitoring. Rock samples will also be taken from these boreholes to assess rock quality and structure. NIST will complement this test with other standardized instruments such as cone penetrometers pushed into the soil to reveal soil type and strength characteristics without taking any samples. Specimens collected using these procedures will be preserved as evidence supporting technical research.


Up to 450 MW for cleaner, greener ferrochrome envisaged

When Merafe CEO Zanele Matlala reported on Tuesday the company's cash-rich results supported by increased production, he said stainless steel production has recovered to pre-pandemic levels, resulting in more robust demand for ferrochrome and chrome ore and better pricing for both, Merafe's revenue and operating income is primarily derived from the Glencore-Merafe Chrome Initiative, which has a total annual installed capacity of 2.3 million tons of ferrochrome. Fullard answered questions following Merafe's presentation of excellent half-year production and financial results, including a 422% higher EBITDA of R819 million.


Galvanizers design manual

Galvanizers Association of Australia developed a practical reference for designers, specifiers, engineers, architects, consultants, manufacturers, and users. You will find topics as:

● Process and properties

● Durability

● Design

● Concrete

● Bolting

● Welding

● Painting

● EPD and sustainability

● Glossary

● Caso Studies


Jobs

Research on hydrogen embrittlement of additive-manufactured steel

Position: Postdoctoral position.

Seeker: Northwestern University.

Location: Evanston, IL, USA.

Job description: be part of a new NSF-BSF project, entitled "Influence of Cohesion Enhancing Elements, Impurities and Hydrogen/Deuterium at Grain Boundaries and Heterophase Interfaces on Embrittlement of Additive-Manufactured Steels.” This project will be conducted jointly with Prof. David Seidman from Northwestern University. Starting date of the project: September 1st, 2021.


Taking care of bridges

Positions: Senior bridge inspection engineer

Seeker: Parsons.

Location: Remote (Any Location), Canada.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Bachelor of Applied Science, specializing in Civil Engineering, with a focus on Structural Engineering courses or P.Eng., EIT, or CET registration or equivalent.

● Experience: Between 5-10 years of experience in the bridge engineering profession is preferred.

● Skills: Knowledge of industry bridge inspection standards and guidelines used in Western Canada is preferred, also knowledge of snooper vehicle, flagging, and other non-destructive technique subconsultants in Western Canada would be beneficial.

● Bonus: Underwater inspection knowledge / skills are considered a bonus.

Job description: Parsons is seeking for Senior bridge inspection engineer willing to coordinating and performing detailed inspections on bridge superstructures, substructures, decks, barriers, and approaches, embankments and/or culverts for cracks, collision damage, corrosion, local failures, fatigue, delamination, coating condition, general condition, maintenance items, etc.


Materials protection for water handling in Melbourne

Position: Materials Engineer / Scientist – Water and Waste-Water Industry

Seeker: Aurecon group.

Location: Melbourne, Australia.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Degree in Applied Science/ corrosion / materials engineering

● Experience: Relevant industry experience and knowledge of and experience with destructive and non-destructive testing.

● Skills: CPEng or RPEQ or on the way to achieving excellent written and verbal communication skills to support inter-disciplinary and client relationships and production of specialist reports.

Job description: Aurecon group is seeking a Materials Engineer willing to undertake or specify non-destructive and destructive testing of materials and do materials selection and specification for corrosion prevention and mitigation including conducting on site civil/structural condition investigations of transport, mining, water, and port infrastructure and develop repair methodologies and preparation of repair or upgrade specifications for new projects and to extent the remaining service life existing assets


Materials protection for water handling in Romania

Position: Commissioning Engineer Chemical Systems

Seeker: Siemens Energy.

Location: Bucharest, Romania.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● *Education:* Master of Science and Bachelor Engineer: Chemistry or Master of Science/Bachelor Engineer: Mechanical Engineering with interest in Chemistry

● *Experience:* Relevant industry experience and knowledge of and experience with destructive and non-destructive testing.

● *Skills:* Fluent command of the English language in writing and speaking (incl. technical), have declared intention to live and work abroad for an extended period also knowledge in chemistry-related aspects of water, wastewater, and fuel treatment systems

Job description: Siemens Energy is seeking a Commissioning Engineer Chemical Systems willing to Commissioning of water and wastewater treatment facilities and the operation of the power plant analytical chemistry laboratory. You will be responsible for all matters relating to chemistry at the site and ensures safe and reliable chemical operation of the systems in compliance with specifications.


Networking & Knowledge Exchange

Coupled actions and their effects on the durability of concrete. Virtual.

Neville Centre of Excellence in Cement and Concrete Engineering, in collaboration with the UKCRIC National Centre for Infrastructure Materials and the Materials and Structures Research Group of the School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds are offering a webinar about the current normative consideration of concrete durability, the external actions are compared with descriptively derived material resistances such as compressive strength, w/c ratio, etc. Speaker will be Dr. Frank Dehn, he is a university professor for building materials and concrete construction and director of the materials testing and research Centre at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Dates: Tuesday, September 14th, 2021.

Time: From 8:00 to 9:00, (GMT - 5).


7th International Corrosion Prevention Symposium for Research Scholars (CORSYM 2021). Virtual

The 7th International Corrosion Prevention Symposium for Research Scholars (CORSYM 2021) is an annual flagship event for NACE International East Asia Pacific and is jointly organized by Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology UKM and NACE International Founding Malaysia Section. CORSYM is a gathering of young scientists, research scholars and students in corrosion prevention and control.

Dates: Wednesday, November 17th of 2021.


Underground corrosion short course. In-person.

Underground Corrosion Short Course will be at Grand Wayne Convention Center and it will be delivered to anyone interested in the causes of corrosion and its control should attend this course. Engineers, corrosion technicians, construction foreman will find that this program fits their needs. You will have industry experts presenting the latest information on internal corrosion and internal corrosion control.

Dates: Tuesday, August 31st, 2021, to Thursday, September 02nd, 2021.

Photo by Louis Reed on Unsplash