Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️

April 20, 2021

Quote of the week: “It always seems impossible until it’s done” — Nelson Mandela (1918 – 2013).

From The Editor's Corner


Some years ago, promoted by the World Corrosion Organization – WCO, an NGO associated with the United Nations, it was established on the 24th of April as the “World Corrosion Awareness Day.” Such action agrees with the WCO motto: “Raising Awareness about Corrosion and Corrosion Protection around the World.” Besides, it is aligned with one of the WCO strategic objectives concerning promoting public awareness of the impact of corrosion on our every-day-life in production plants, civil construction buildings like bridges, transport systems, water distribution systems, etc. Yearly, the WCO invites corrosionist around the globe to join the World Corrosion Awareness Day celebration by organizing promotional activities highlighting the importance of corrosion studies, anticorrosion measurements, and industrial asset integrity. Interest in the celebration is growing year by year, and the following are some of the programmed activities in 2021:

● Virtual Reality Short Film concourse. The European Federation of Corrosion promoted a competition about a short film concerning corrosion fundamentals, using virtual/augmented reality animation. Deadline closed March 31st, 2021.

● FOTOCORR 2021. A photo contest launched by the Spanish Society for Materials – SOCIEMAT. The deadline closed on April 19th, 2021.

● Two events jointly organized by NACE Islamabad Pakistan Section and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

o Corrosion Physical Model Competition: Aimed a better understanding of corrosion mitigation methods by graduate and undergraduate students. Submission deadline: Tuesday, April 20th, 2021.

o Online technical session: The invited speaker will be presenting subjects of current interest about corrosion protection. Submission deadline: Thursday, April 22nd, 2021.

Webinar on “Tools & techniques for managing corrosion of precision component manufacturing during production, storage, and transportation.” The event will be hosted by Lake Engineering Solutions and the Confederation of British Metalforming (CBM) and presented by our colleague Dean Kenny. Wednesday, April 21st, 2021, 9:30 BST (GMT + 1).

Webinar organized by the Working Party 7 (Corrosion Education) of the European Federation of Corrosion dealing with “Remote teaching in corrosion education." Wednesday, April 21st, 2021, 10:00 CEST (GMT + 2).

● In-person conference (don’t forget your mask!). It is hosted by the Corrosion Institute of South Africa, including a commercial exhibition, industrial demonstrations, product presentations, and technical information sharing.

Date: Wednesday, April 21st, 2021.

Venue: Ambrosia Hall, 97 Allan Road, Glen Austin, Midrand, South Africa.

Registration: [email protected]

Webinar organized by the Working Party4 (Nuclear Corrosion) of the European Federation of Corrosion entitled “2nd online seminar on Nuclear Corrosion”. Friday, April 23rd, 2021, 16:00 CEST (GMT + 2).

Webinar. It is organized by Group Manager, Metallic materials in corrosive environments, SWERIM AB, Sweden. This event is designed to create awareness, disseminate knowledge in corrosion, and promote interaction between students, researchers, and experts from the industry. Some of the topics to be considered are the basics of corrosion, corrosion on health, corrosion in the automobile industry, stainless steel, and aluminum alloys. Friday, April 23rd, 2021, daylight CEST (GMT + 2).

● The Hungarian Corrosion Association – HUNKOR, has organized two events.

o Photo competition with the motto “Corrosion where I walk!”

o Webinar for Hungarian speakers. Friday, April 23rd, 2021.

Photo/image competition organized by the Coatings & Ceramics and the Metallurgy & Corrosion groups of the Department of Materials at the University of Manchester. The competition is open to undergraduate and postgraduate university students to submit original corrosion images ranging from photography to technical research images. Submission deadline: Saturday, April 24th, 2021.

● In-person. “Iron and Rust” theatre production. Jean-Bernard Memet, Ph.D. in materials science, a specialist in marine corrosion, and Alexandre Denis, a circus artist, a specialist in making, discuss their obsession: Stability of materials against corrosion attack, and stability of the human body in front of the natural movements.

Date: Friday, April 23rd, 2021.

Time: 18:00 CEST (GMT + 2).

Venue: Musée départemental Arles antique. France.

● Metrohm Schweiz and the Swiss Corrosion Network invite scientists and engineers from industry and the Swiss academy to participate in a day dedicated to presenting and discussing different corrosion topics.

Date: Monday, April 26th, 2021.

Time: 10:00 to 16:00 CEST (GMT + 2).

Venue: Metrohm, Zofingen, Switzerland.

Online elevator pitch. The Institute of Corrosion, UK, is organizing the competition “Thesis in 3 minutes” to explain the importance of your academic and industrial research on corrosion and show your skills as a presenter in a three-minute speech.

Date: Thursday, April 29th, 2021.

Time: 110:00 BEST (GMT + 1).

The above is an attractive series of activities showing the interest in the protection of materials, but even very short taking into account the importance of the subject, considering the incidence of materials stability in the coming times. We, the evangelists of corrosion and protection, must disseminate awareness of corrosion throughout society; the community of corrosionists must be more vital and more active; industry must be more responsible in the conservation of materials, and managers must have the expertise to deal with these topics. The education systems must assume their rightful role. Teachers must be more proactive. Students must be more modern than modernists (more attracted by transcendental issues than by superfluous ones). Current and new professional organizations must be more vigorous and active. More robust and new, and more effective information channels are needed, too. Governments need to catalyze such actions through policies, funds, and tools within education, industry, and innovation systems. This is the only way to contribute to global sustainability targets from the perspective of engineering materials.

Celebrating with work

As a contribution to the World Corrosion Awareness Day celebration, below is a review of an invaluable speech recently given by Prof. Gerald S. Frankel, Director of the Fontana Corrosion Center at the Ohio State University, U.S.A. Jerry’s primary research interests are in the passivation and localized corrosion of metals and alloys, corrosion inhibition, protective coatings, and atmospheric corrosion. He has received several awards because of his significant contribution to the understanding of corrosion phenomena. De facto, Professor Frankel gave a “Master Class” about “A framework for pitting based on pit growth stability” and could help all the colleagues who did not have the opportunity to witness it and learn some of the relevant details.

There is no little enemy

Pitting is a big, tiny problem. Typically, a small area has deteriorated, but the impact is disproportionately large. All people suffer its effects: on the teeth, implants, cooking pots, cars, etc., but also socially and industrially in public and private infrastructure, buildings, factories, equipment, parts, etc. We are talking about a situation where size doesn’t matter, but the consequences could colossally impact. It is a problem with a small, complex, difficult to follow, study, and understanding.

A scientific approach

In principle, pitting corrosion is a surface phenomenon resulting from heterogeneity existing or created as any corrosion process. A microstructural heterogeneity like inclusions or any other defect. Or a heterogeneity in the surface film, like a porous, a crack, or any weaker point, created by its configuration or any external effect, chemical, mechanical, etc. A typical attack mechanism on stainless steel, aluminum alloys, and other passivating metals. Until five-six decades before, technical limitations, the study of pitting corrosion was very limited because instrumental techniques were almost reduced to metallographic microscopy. Corrosionists used empirical procedures to assess the extension of the pitting attack, such as point count by area and depth measurement by a calibrated needle. The 1970s started a significant development supported by the electron microscope’s possibilities and other microscopical and spectroscopic new techniques. Scientific contributions like the mentioned by Frankel included a lot of research led by Professors as Jose R. Galvele (†2011), Roger C. Newman (University of Toronto), G. T. Burstein (University of Cambridge). Philippe Marcus (Paris Sciences & Lettres University). Recent developments are encompassed with instrumentation advances. Supported on these possibilities, a lot of research led by Frankel and others currently allows us to have a much better idea about pitting corrosion. In essence, pitting corrosion is a local breakdown of the passive film, resulting in the substrate's rapid local dissolution. Cathodic reactions consume oxygen outside the pit, accelerated anodic dissolution occurs inside the pit, promoted by the enrichment in aggressive ions like chlorides and a pH decrease, and converting the process as autocatalytic.

The proposed model

Frankel’s proposal begins by considering pitting potential, repassivation potential, and critical pitting temperature as the pitting resistance parameters. In addition, factors affecting the stability and growth rate of pits have been examined. Such factors are the environment (basically the salt film inside the pit), the temperature, and the alloy composition. The result is a unified framework for pitting corrosion growing, simultaneously including all the parameters mentioned earlier. According to the author, a key new concept is the maximum pit dissolution current density. With this and the other parameters, it is possible to estimate the pit growth, stability, charge transfer control, and salt film formation (diffusion control). In the end, an integrated tool for determining the critical pitting temperature, the pitting potential, the repassivation potential, and the influence of alloying elements. A powerful instrument for prediction of performance and design of corrosion-resistant alloys.

Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!

Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.

Materials Biz News

Ups and downs in the stainless steel tanks market

Columbus Stainless, a company of the Acerinox Group, is one of the leading SS international suppliers and the only SS mill in the continent, based in South Africa. According to its Market Development Manager, in an interview recently published, over the past 12 months, there has been a global increase in SS tank production, particularly for the food and beverage sectors. Reasons include the growing trends in such industries, the SS better behavior facing increasing hygienic requirements, and its lower life-cycle costing. Besides, other sectors like the liquor industry have suffered the impact of the lockdown regulations, and some of its expansion plans have been canceled. Also, several small liquor companies have gone out of business.

Corrosion is not in quarantine, but it is being surveilled

This is the case in SP Energy Networks, a distribution and transmission network operator in charge of the energy supply for 3.5 million customers in Central Scotland, North Wales, and North England. The Company signed an agreement with Cyberhawk, a company devoted to the asset inspection in the energy sector by drones information capture, visualization software, and data processing by cloud computing. In a video, both companies' representatives explain how they are proceeding with critical inspection services throughout the coronavirus pandemic. This new procedure substituted another one with helicopters, which gives accurate information from all the critical points, showing defects, even at a very early stage. After the information processing, software achieves a report by each tower, in different presentation forms, for technical and financial decisions, in a shorter time, and lower impact on landowners, intersecting ways traffic, and environmentally.

Corrosion control by inhibitors

Anodamine is a water treatment company serving industries like power generation, petroleum/petrochemical, pulp and paper, and sugar. Recently, the Company published a free access white paper about “The Control of Two-Phase Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC).” In this document, the authors present an example of mitigation of corrosion assisted by the circulation of a two-phase fluid in a steam-water system of a combined cycle power plant. The offered control is based on an own product. Results were validated by doing several kinds of analysis. In conclusion, corrosion was drastically reduced, along with lower maintenance costs, shorter start-ups, and removal of nitrogen blanketing and dehumidified air.


Educating more and better future engineers

Position: Associate Dean (Engagement)

Seeker: The Australian National University (ANU) College of Engineering and Computer Science

Location: Canberra, Australia.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Experience: High-level business engagement, partnerships, networking abilities, and people management skills to develop and implement strategic projects to achieve desired changes.

● Skills: Sophisticated interpersonal, liaison, and consultation skills with a strong interest in transformation and experience leading consultation processes in large complex organizations relevant to the College and University goals.

Job description: Leadership to the College on delivering the Meaningful Engagement pillar of the Reimagine Engineering and Computer Science Strategic Intent 2019 - 2025. Engage broadly within and beyond the University with government and industry to identify and engage strategic partners and actively establish opportunities to exchange ideas to work towards a shared view of the future. Promoting and facilitating high-quality engagement initiatives from development through to successful implementation.

Teaching chemistry in Hong Kong

Position: Chair Professor/Professor/Associate Professor/Assistant Professor

Seeker: City University of Hong Kong (CityU)

Location: Hong Kong

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Ph.D. degree in Chemistry.

● Experience: For Chair Professor/Professor, candidates should possess a proven record of distinguished scholarly accomplishment, including significant external funding support, strong leadership capabilities, and a track record of active participation in academic affairs with balance and excellence in teaching and research activities.

● Bonus: Background in Organic Chemistry.

Job description: Teach and conduct research in Chemistry; support the mission of excellence in professional education and research; establish and maintain robust research programs; and carry out administrative work and other duties to facilitate the Department's development as a whole.

Asset integrity risk inspection

Position: Process Data Engineer

Seeker: Shell

Location: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: University Degree in Materials/Mechanical/Industrial/Metallurgical Engineering.

● Experience: At least three years in Oil & Gas/Petrochemicals/Power Plants/. Technical/maintenance jobs from one or more of the following fields: Inspection Management systems such as w-IMS and CMMS systems like SAP.

● Skills: ASNT LEVEL II, API 510, or API 570 certification, or at least three years experience working with those standards is Mandatory.

● Bonus: Working knowledge/Experience in maintaining Downstream/Upstream/IG Asset hierarchy/ Electronic Data Warehouse (EDW)/ AIM-EDMS/ SPI Intools / IDMS/ Web Inspection Management System (WIMS). Professional Engineering certification (API RBI-580/581/570/510 etc.). Knowledge/Proficiency in SAP PM/MM module. Knowledge/Proficiency in MS Excel, MS Access, etc. Knowledge/Proficiency in AutoCAD, AutoPlant, and other design and drafting software. Knowledge of Lean Six Sigma CI methodology.

Job description: Preparation of Risk-Based Inspection datasheets, converting process flow diagram into material selection diagrams, identifying corrosion loops, identifying integrity operating windows and operating parameters from corrosion monitoring framework, preparing corrosion loop descriptions and tags, identification of dominant failure modes & damage mechanism, knowledge of RBI procedures. Support Inspection supervision of static equipment during asset Turnarounds.

Photo by Erik Mclean on Unsplash