Materials.Business Weekly ⚙️

June 29, 2021

Quote of the week: “ Don't be afraid to reach for the stars ” — Ellen Ochoa, USA (1958), Electrical Engineer, Astronaut, Director Johnson Space Center.

From The Editor's Corner

Galvanized steel sheets flourish in the North thanks to the triple helix collaboration

Envisioning the future of galvanized steel

Last week was held GALVATECH 2021, the 12th International Conference on Zinc & Zinc alloy Coated Steel. This event has been held every three years since 1989 and is staged in North America, Europe, and Asia. As usual today, the last meeting was virtual. The organizer was ASMET, the Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, and it was subtitled “Lighter, Stronger, Durable: Advances in Zn-Coated Steel Sheet.” The next one will behold in Seoul, South Korea, from October 15th to 19th of 2023. In the meantime, ASMET invites the community to attend the “First Galvanizing Highlights Symposium” in Vienna in June 2022.

This year's event featured a panel of plenary lectures focusing on recent developments, challenges, and opportunities for the regions mentioned above. These lectures served as the framework for presenting a series of oral and poster papers showing the more recent development of continuous galvanizing worldwide. Presentations were categorized by subjects, and trends about the business can be deduced from such groups:

● The Process: Electrogalvanizing, welding, furnaces (temperature control, rapid cooling, other developments), bath hardware, wettability, dross management, weight control, novel technologies (e.g., hot deep galvanizing), quality control, bath chemistry and management, pot optimization, physical vapor deposition – PVD.

● Applications: Automotive and non-automotive (home appliances and construction).

● Coating properties: microstructure, reactivity, new compositions, weldability.

● New substrates:, press hardened steel, third-generation advanced high strength steels - 3G steels, and additive-manufactured steel.

● Corrosion behavior: Studies, modeling, coating alloying modification, hydrogen embrittlement.

According to the plenary lectures, some issues must be highlighted regarding the current and expected challenges and opportunities about continuous galvanizing products. At the outset, all problems must be linked to significant challenges facing humanity in the post-globalization era: environment, society, health, and innovation & development. Companies are reacting. They are searching on themes that can be associated with raw materials (scrap availability and cleanliness.), the process itself (reengineering for greener ones), and new and improved coatings (PVD, nano pre-coating, chromium-free, inorganic lubricated, and functional finishes). However, most of the efforts are being put on greener materials for greener mobility. That means lightweight materials (thinner) for the electric car bodies and batteries, but simultaneously giving answers to the challenge of higher crash protection (stronger and higher toughness steels, even for the “uncrachable” self-driven cars of the future) with better manufacturability, better thermal handling, environmental protection (avoiding leakages), and higher corrosion resistance, with products more in line with the requirements of the Circular Economy. As regards market requirements, the tensions are not yet resolved. Mobility should be reduced, but individual transport could increase significantly. On the other hand, the options achieved by the integration of physical/digital is allowing the use of novel tools like big data analysis and other technologies, and solutions are appearing, as shown in GALVATEHC 2021. An interesting comparison between the 2001 and 2021 conferences shows that 20 years ago, efforts were made on topics like Zn-Fe alloys. But now, research is probably more active than before. Some of the current study subjects include other alloys like Zn-Al-Mg, and new substrates, using new tools like simulation and modeling supported on big data and artificial intelligence.

Talking about the so-called Advanced High Strength Steels – HHSS, recent developments look for increased mechanical properties, not only in tensile strength but also in elongation, burring, and bendability. For example, POSCO has been moving from products with a minimum tensile strength of 590 MPa to new ones under development with about 2000 MPa. Such substrates are coated with PVD deposited alloys like Zn-Al-3%Mg (Hot or cold rolled) for construction applications and Zn-Al-1.5%Mg (cold rolled) for appliances and automobiles. Outstanding characteristics of these new products include better corrosion resistance, stampability, bonding to other parts (including welding), stone shipping resistance, and anti-perforation properties.

Betting on the industry - academy collaboration

Much of the progress achieved is related to strong collaboration between industry and academia. In particular, the Japanese experience can be underlined because there is a long history of successful cooperation. Such kind of joined efforts had been led by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan - ISIJ - in the form of consortia. The first one was established in 1998, and then a series of nine consortia have been developed until now. Some of the universities taking part in these collaborations are Kyoto, Tokyo, Tohoku. General subjects that have been studied are:

● Coating microstructure and properties of galvannealed steel sheets.

● Application of galvannealed steel sheets as high-performance materials.

● Effect of Si addition to steel substrate on coating properties of galvannealed steel sheets.

● Formability improvement of the coating layer on galvannealed steel sheets.

● Creation and nanoscale analysis of next-generation hot-dip galvanized steel sheet coatings.

● Formation of excellent hot-dip Zn coating layer and its nano-level analysis.

● Analysis of advanced hot plating film structure and physical properties.

The last consortium, currently under development, is divided into four groups aimed to study:

● Oxidation, wettability

● Coating reaction

● Solidification

● Deformability

A group of companies representing ISIJ and 14 universities across the country is in charge of the planned studies. The value of the obtained results looking for closing the gap between behavior into the lab and the actual application is confirmed by the continuity of the active collaboration after almost 25 years of joint efforts. Some of the ground-breaking cooperative results are new and more precise phase diagrams; an accurate crystallographic characterization of the coatings and their relationships with the actual behavior; understanding of the reaction mechanisms happening with new processes and alloys; and understanding the solidification mechanisms occurring with novel coating alloys. The emergence of new substrates in the face of current and future needs has become a new challenge for the galvanization industry and its partner, the academy. Further issues to be studied include reactive wetting, heat treatment of AHSS, and hydrogen embrittlement. In general, there are expected solutions about higher productivity, better quality, improved efficiency, and higher flexibility, looking for minimizing costs and increasing profitability. GALVATECH 2021 has shown that galvanized steel sheet has a promising future supported on the shoulders of a strong community of Corrosionists facing future challenges and opportunities. A future only in the North?

Remember: Protection of materials and equipment is a profitable business!

Prof. Carlos Arroyave, Ph.D. Editor.

Materials Biz News

Wind industry calls for Europe

Vessels and maintenance schedules may soon have to be reassessed due to extended shutdowns last year or sudden long waits in overcrowded ports now that global trade has resumed, while ship profiles can change unexpectedly, the painting community can help cut costs in inventive ways, most importantly, fuel and exhaust performance remain at optimum levels whether a vessel is in motion, seated, or experiencing schedule disruptions. Tests have also shown that some new surface coatings and waterline paints resist abrasion and keep decks cool. Fumeless coatings for tight, contained spaces are being developed in Korea, and the trend is moving around the world to other coatings companies, look for software developments from paint companies that will help vessel managers with maintenance and performance efficiencies, thereby avoiding expensive surprises.

- Source -

Global success from the beginning

In 2014, a small but vibrant tech company invented a way to make top quality PET plastic resin from waste PET plastic and polyester, without making more new plastics, starting in an improvised lab located in a garage, Loop Industries' founders separated polymers in waste PET plastic and polyester fiber into their key components, or monomers, using low energy. In July 2019, Loop used run settings based on the CHEMCAD CC-BATCH module simulation results to run three different distillation stages of Methanol Recovery, Dewatering and MEG Purification. Based on successful pilot results, Loop has created the first documentation on its technology that confirms its suitability to the market. Also, since Loop has a CC-STEADY STATE license, its users can try certain additional functions such as CC-BATCH and CC-THERM to see if the capabilities meet their needs before purchasing.

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Reborn as bridges in Ireland

Converting decommissioned wind turbine blades to bridges is just one of the innovative solutions touted to tackle a major recycling problem facing the industry, many more are decommissioned early due to operational requirements for installing larger blades capable of generating more energy. In Ireland alone, more than 11,000 tons of knives will be decommissioned by 2025, Cork University College is part of a larger Re-Wind project that involves experts from Queen's University of Belfast, City University of New York and the Georgia Institute of Technology, other reallocation projects under consideration by Re-Wine include electrical transmission towers, road noise barriers and coastal wake breaks to reduce erosion.

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Five major LNG projects to look forward to in 2021

The oil and gas industry are being transformed to reduce its carbon emissions, through a call for proposals by governments and regulators for a net-zero future,

● Alaska LNG (liquified natural gas) Project, USA: The Alaska LNG project, located in Nikiski in the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska, consists of 1.4 thousand kilometres of pipelines, a gas treatment plant, and a 20 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) liquefaction facility.

● Driftwood LNG (liquified natural gas) LLC, USA: Driftwood LNG LLC, owned by the American company Tellurian Inc. whose headquarters are in Houston, Texas, is currently developing an LNG production and export terminal on the west bank of the Calcasieu River in Louisiana.

● Orca Floating, Canada: The project involves the construction of a 24mtpa LNG export facility with 6 permanently moored FLNG vessels, in the form of converted barges near Prince Rupert in Kaien Island, a natural gas treatment facility, a compression unit, gas processing units, storage tanks, vacuum chambers and distillation units, the laying of pipelines, and the installation of compressor units.

● North Field LNG (liquified natural gas) Expansion Project, Qatar: North Field, offshore north-east of the Qatar peninsula, is the world’s biggest single non-associated natural gas field in the world. It’s also the world’s largest-ever LNG project.

● Rio Grande LNG (liquified natural gas), USA: The Rio Grande LNG project, with an estimated cost of 15 billion USD, is one of the biggest private investments in Texas, USA. NextDecade, a Texas-based LNG development company, has planned to develop and operate, under its subsidiary Rio Grande LNG, a 27mtpa gas liquefaction and export facility at the Port of Brownsville.

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Corrosion awareness

Bad news last week was concerning the collapse of a 40 years old, 12 stories, residential building in the shore of Miami, USA. Studies about the reasons and culprits of the failure will be developed. Surely, conclusion could give us lessons on how to manage the risk of similar structures in environments like the East coast of Florida. However, corrosion engineers know well the risk of exposure of materials as reinforced concrete to a harsh environment like the above-mentioned. Also, we know how to prevent and control corrosion problems of rebar, including the proper design and materials selection, construction procedures, monitoring measurements, and remediation actions. That means that if the reasons of the tragedy in the USA are related with corrosion, problems could not be associated to a lack of knowledge. They could be a lack of corrosion awareness.


Leading environmental issues at the global level

Position: Advisor to the CEO

Seeker: World Bank

Location: Washington, DC, United States.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Advanced degree (Ph.D. highly desired) in Environmental Economics, Environmental Management, Natural Resource Management, Sustainable Development, or related field.

● Experience: 12 or more years of relevant experience in environmental economics, including rigorous research, quantitative, analytical, and critical-thinking skills that can be applied to multiple business needs.

● Skills:

● Excellent communication skills, with the ability to present ideas clearly and concisely to influence and to persuade.

● Superior level of resourcefulness, with the ability to lead and work with considerable autonomy.

● Outstanding interpersonal, diplomatic, and partnership skills.

● Well-organized, self-motivated, and highly dependable individual.

● Ability to anticipate, with quick response, capability and selectiveness, and to go beyond what is expected.

● A high degree of discretion, tact, and sensitivity in dealing with internal and external clients.

● High standards of excellence and integrity

● Demonstrated ability to work effectively in a multicultural environment.

Job description: The role of the Advisor is multi-faceted strategic, and complex, including providing advice, oversight, and management over a wide range of tasks, including developing reports and analysis and actively shaping and driving strategy and policy. It will involve working across various issues and people management within the Secretariat and managing relationships with external partners, with scope for problem-solving, analytical, technical work, innovation, and public relationships and diplomacy.

Additive manufacturing of advanced alloys metamaterials

Position: Two Ph.D. positions - Innovative Training Networks European Project

Seeker: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), School of Aeronautical Engineering and Space (ETSIAE)

Location: Madrid, Spain

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Master’s degree in aerospace, Mechanical, Industrial or Materials engineering, or related areas.

● Experience: A suitable background for these open positions includes materials science, experimental mechanics of materials, computational mechanics, and other related areas.

● Skills: Fluent written and spoken English and proficiency in using scientific software packages such as MATLAB or Python

Job description: This project seeks two Ph.D. research willing to study and understand the effect of the additive manufacturing processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of additively manufactured titanium alloys through experiments and computational models. The project aims to develop new experimental computing tools and techniques for designing and manufacturing aerospace-grade titanium-based lattice metamaterials with superior mechanical properties.

Asset integrity assistant general manager

Position: Asset Integrity Assistant General Manager.

Seeker: ENI Energy company.

Location: El Gamil, Egypt

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: BSc. Of Petroleum or Chemical Engineering or Equivalent

● Experience: Knowledge of, Commissioning and Start-Up, maintenance activities, HSE, many years of Oil & Gas industry experience, and some years of production experience

Job description: Eni energy company seeks an asset integrity assistant general manager with the ability to bring new materials to consumer products at scale and willing to face down their fear of failure to accomplish bold things and working closely with the Maint. Eng. SPT on AI (Asset Integrity) objectives and targets set and monitor company performance against them.

Nanoengineering of multicomponent metal-free carbonaceous materials for bio-oil upgrading through ultrasound-assisted selective redox photo-catalysis in continuous-flow reactors

Position: Post-doctoral position

Seeker: Institute of physical chemistry PAS (Polish Academy of Sciences).

Location: Warsaw, Poland.

The basic profile of the candidate:

● Education: Ph.D. degree in chemistry, chemical engineering, catalysis sciences, obtained no earlier than seven years before starting the employment in the project.

● Experience: Significant research achievements in carbon-based photocatalysis (materials synthesis and characterization), nanostructured materials synthesis, organic chemistry synthesis in particular redox processes, sonochemistry, and experience in sonochemistry and flow reactors design/modeling.

● Skills: Ability to communicate fluently in English (written and spoken) and strong motivation to work and pursue scientific questions, creativity, and analytical thinking. Also, research experience in related fields will be advantageous.

Job description: The objective of this project is to develop a new method of transforming lignin and chitosan into carbon photocatalysts rich in N and S free of metals and new catalytic materials with excellent redox sonophotocatalytic properties to assist continuous flow photo-redox processes in obtaining high-value chemicals from the valorization of bio-oil-based molecules.

Networking & Knowledge Exchange

MIC Management in above and underground storage tanks. Virtual

AMPP offers a two-day course that gathers industry opinion leaders to share ideas, lessons learned, and best practices. It will be focused on identifying and mitigating MIC's in above and underground storage tanks. It will be focused on tanks storing various hazardous chemicals and substances that adversely affect their environment when the integrity of the asset is compromised due to corrosion and leads to costly unplanned downtime when tanks are drained for repairs and maintenance. Today, more than 64,000 leaky storage tanks in the United States are primarily caused by microbiologically affected corrosion, either unidentified or uncontrolled.

Dates: Tuesday and Wednesday,July 20th, and July 21st of 2021.

International Conference on High-Temperature Corrosion of Technical Ceramics. Virtual

This conference will gather eminent scientists, researchers from universities to exchange and share experiences and research results on all aspects of technical ceramics structures and corrosion. There will be several selected high-impact papers from different authors, such as Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents. You will be attending topics like:

● High-temperature corrosion of technical ceramics.

● Gaseous corrosion of ceramics.

● High-temperature corrosion mechanism of layered ternary ceramics.

● Alumina in sulfur oxide environments

Dates: Thursday and -Friday, July 15th and 16th, 2021.

Training program in oil refineries. Virtual

NACE India offers a two-day educational program to cover case studies in oil refineries in India, describing the failures, analyses of such failures, and remedial actions. This program will teach participants the reason for various failures, showing how to understand the methodology of failure analysis for appropriate corrective actions at the moment. You will be attending specifical cases like:

● Stress relaxation cracking of SS 347 piping.

● Failure of SS vessel by chloride SCC.

● Failure case studies in the crude distillation unit.

● Failure of a bitumen storage tank.

Dates: Friday and Saturday, July 09th and 10th, 2021.

Photo by Jamie Morrison on Unsplash